International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-9501

Volume 6 Issue 3 (December 2015)

Original Articles

Ambivalent Sexism, Submissive Behaviors, and Positive and Negative Affect as Predictor of Marital Adjustment

Eyüp Çelik & Murat İskender

pp. 1 - 14


In this study, marital adjustment level of individuals was investigated in terms of their ambivalent sexism, submissive behaviors, and positive and negative affect. The data was collected with Marital Adjustment Scale, Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Submissive Behaviors Scale, and Positive and Negative Affect Scale from 378 married individuals. The relationships between the variables were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient, t-test, and regression analysis. The findings showed that marital adjustment of married individuals was positively correlated with positive affect and negatively correlated with negative affect. On the other hand, marital adjustment was not significantly related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and submissive behaviors. Furthermore, the findings showed that negative affect positively related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, submissive behaviors. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that marital adjustment was positively predicted by positive affect; however, it was negatively predicted by negative affect. Lastly, the present study results showed that marital adjustment and benevolent sexism did not differ significantly between the genders; however, there was a significant difference between genders in terms of hostile sexism, submissive behaviors, and positive and negative affects.

Keywords: Marital adjustment, ambivalent sexism, submissive behaviors, positive and negative affect, multiple regression analysis.

Vocabulary Learning Strategy Preferences and Vocabulary Size of Pre-service English Teachers

Sabriye Şener

pp. 15 - 33


The present study examined the vocabulary learning strategy preferences and vocabulary size of pre-service English teachers at a state university in Turkey. It also investigated the relationship between their strategy use and vocabulary size. To this end, 304 pre-service teachers constituted the working group of the research. In this study, a quantitative research design was employed. For data collection, an adapted version of the Vocabulary Learning Strategy Inventory and Vocabulary Levels Test were used. The most frequently used vocabulary learning strategy sub-group was found to be determination and the lowest vocabulary learning strategy subgroup was cognitive. Besides, the most significant relationship was seen between the vocabulary size and cognitive strategies. Finally, multiple comparison tests revealed a significant statistical difference between the first and fourth graders’ vocabulary size.

Keywords: Word level, vocabulary learning strategies, vocabulary size

Investigation of Pre-service Teachers’ Communication Skills

Fatih Kana

pp. 34 - 42


The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of Turkish language pre-service teachers’ communication skills. Descriptive survey model was used in this study. 218 pre-service Turkish language teachers, who are studying at Department of Turkish Language Teaching at a university in the west of Turkey, participated in the study. Criterion sampling method, which is one of the purposeful sampling methods, was used in the choice of the participants of this study. As an instrument for data collection, this study used “Inventory of Communication Skills” finalized by Ersan and Balcı (1998) on some pre-service Turkish Language teachers. As the collected data exhibited normal distribution, t-test and one-way variance analysis were used in the study. Pre-service teachers of Turkish Language find themselves adequate in the followings in order; behavioral communication skills, cognitive communication skills and emotional communication skills. The findings of the study suggest that there has been a significant difference between pre-service teachers’ communication skills, their gender and their class levels. It was also found in this study that there is no significant difference between communication skills of pre-service teachers and their grade-point averages and the high school that they graduated from

Keywords: Communication skills, Turkish language pre-service teachers, Turkish education.

Pre-Service EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of and Strategies in Dealing with Misbehavior

Şeyda Selen Çimen & Hazal Çepik-Kiriş

pp. 43 - 49


It is a fact that the role of classroom management is crucial in teaching English. Therefore, it is important to know the perceptions of teachers on student misbehavior and the strategies they develop to cope with them. This study aims to explore pre-service EFL teachers’ perceptions of and strategies in dealing with misbehavior. Participants consist of 20 students studying in the last year of a four year foreign language teacher education program in Turkey. In this qualitative study, the data were obtained from written responses to open-ended questions and follow-up interviews. The participants were asked questions to identify their perceptions of misbehavior, strategies they develop to deal with them and factors affecting the ways they deal with misbehavior. In this study, findings will be discussed in the light of related literature. 

Keywords: Pre-service teachers, EFL, misbehavior, strategy, perception.

Safety and Risk: Benefits of Outdoor Play For Child Education

Hicran Malıyok

pp. 50 - 62


A consideration of the theoretical frameworks of outdoor play between different scholars who emphasised different approaches and points of emphasis to outdoor play reveals a common pattern of consensus as regards the benefits of outdoor play to childhood education, health and development. From Froebel to Smilansky, the variation in points of emphasis between the different theorists does not seem to deter or inhibit the fundamental message of the profound role of outdoor play in childhood education and development. Although play is generally seen in its beneficial values, an added dimension is also given to the ‘green’ aspects of play which finds a suiting echo in outdoor play. The context of the risk involved in outdoor play in the UK therefore leads us into a consideration of safety and risk within the context of outdoor play in the UK. 

Keywords: risk, safety, outdoor play, child education

Antioxidants and Astaxanthin In Sports Nutrition

Onur Oral, Anna Zusa, İsmail Çağrı Akdogan, Fatih Alakoç & Meral Sevinç Tirpan

pp. 63 - 71


The body has a certain natural defense mechanism which emerges against free radicals resulting from various metabolic mechanisms. The compounds that make up this defense mechanism are called “antioxidants”. Astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant found especially in shellfishes (shrimp, crab, lobster, roe etc.) and salmon in high quantity. Sports activities can be improved by balanced nutrition, but it also can be affected negatively by irregular eating habits. It is of vital importance that athletes keep balanced diet in order to get the most efficient result from their tough workouts. The studies about the nutrition of athletes emphasize the importance of antioxidants for the metabolisms of athletes

Keywords: Astaxanthin, sports nutrition, antioxidants, sports performance