International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-9501

Volume 13 Issue 4 (December 2022)

Original Articles

The Perspectives of Multigrade Teachers on Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) in Turkey

Mehmet Emrah Kuru & Elif Tosun

pp. 1 - 13


This research aims to examine the perspectives of multigrade teachers on teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) in Turkey. The data collected in this study, which included 13 multigrade teachers, was analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques, such as interviews. The results of the interviews yielded 10 themes: English language skills, teaching materials, digital games, classroom seating arrangements, methods and techniques, classroom challenges, garnering attention, assessment and evaluation, teacher suggestions, and additional notes. The examination of the findings of the study led to the conclusion that the multigrade teachers did not perceive themselves as being competent in teaching English, and the reason for this perception was that they did not have any training on TEFL during their undergraduate education. Additionally, the multigrade teachers complained about the technological inadequacies and the insufficiency of the materials for teaching English in multigrade settings.

Keywords: Multigrade classes, multigrade teachers, teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL), perspectives

Reading Culture and its effect on students’ academic performance: A comparative Study  

Ameyaw Samuel

pp. 14 - 27


This study examined the influence of reading behaviour among students in two (2) Junior High Schools in Ghana: Asantekwaa Seventh - Day Adventist (S.D.A) JHS in the Bono East Region and Valley View University (VVU) JHS in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. The study employed a cross-sectional design approach; with copies of a structured questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. Both the stratified and random sampling techniques were used. The quantitative data was analysed descriptively (frequency and percentages) with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 20). The results revealed that students from Asantekwaa S.D.A JHS lacked interest in reading while their counterparts from VVU JHS indicated a lack of access to local novels/ storybooks. However, the majority of the respondents from both schools admitted that they read daily. It is recommended that parents should provide reading materials to their children; schools should establish libraries for students to have access to relevant reading materials. The findings of this study will provide knowledge and measures on how to improve reading habits among students.

Keywords: academic performance, influence, reading culture

The Mistakes Model: A new individual learning model intended for professional development of adults

Emel Okur-Berberoğlu

pp. 28 - 41


Business environment and its expectations have been changing due to technological development. Soft learners are needed in professional life therefore adults can carry on their personal and professional developments throughout their lives. The aim of this paper is to present a new learning model intended for adults within lifelong and online learning. This model is named ‘Mistakes Model’. The model is based on three concepts: adult learning, lifelong/ online learning, and self-regulation. The theoretical background of the model is based on Knowles' andragogy and Zimmerman’s self-regulation concepts. The model presents a crash individual learning model for adults based on Knowles’s explanation because Knowles suggests testing out new learning models for different learners in different situations. The methodology of this study is a case study within a qualitative approach and introspection technique within Sufism was used to collect data. There are three stages of the model: Knot stage, Interval stage, and Unknot stage. The model is successful in learning new knowledge and skills however it should be tested by different adult learners.

Keywords: adult learning, andragogy, lifelong learning, online learning, self-regulation, introspection, learning model