International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-9501

Volume 12 Issue 2 (June 2021)

Original Articles

Qualitative Evaluation for School Improvement: An option for School Leaders

Emmanuel Adjei-Boateng

pp. 1 - 10


Educational leaders need to be able to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of educational programs, policies, and instructional activities in their schools and school systems. The experiences and perspectives of stakeholders matter in an attempt to understand the state of affairs of teaching and learning situations, programs, policies and interventions, and other activities in the schools and educational systems. The review strongly situates qualitative research as an option in evaluation research, especially in the field education. Qualitative evaluation has the potential of leading to a consultative understanding and review of school programs and situations and provide authentic basis for interventions aimed at school improvement. School leaders, especially the principals/school heads and other personnel who are part of the school leadership need to understand qualitative evaluation research, its place in education and school administration, and how it can be utilized to support school improvement efforts.

Keywords: School Improvement, School Leaders, Qualitative Research, Evaluation, Qualitative Evaluation, Methods

Professional Burnout: A Comparative Study from Turkey with State and Private School Principals

Esra Değerli, Nihal Yurtseven

pp. 11 - 28


The purpose of this study is to examine state and private school principals’ professional burnout. The study also aims at exploring whether certain variables have an impact on their burnout and investigating their opinions about factors which trigger professional burnout, emotional burnout, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment as well as suggestions on how to prevent professional burnout. The study was carried out with explanatory mixed method design. The quantitative data was collected through Maslach Burnout Inventory, which had 22 items and three sub-categories. The data was collected from 207 school principals. For the qualitative portion of the study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with four private and four state school principals separately. At the end of the study, it was found out that the professional burnout level of private school principals was higher than state school principals’ professional burnout level. State school principals were found to have higher levels of emotional burnout, while private school principals showed a higher level of depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Their work experience and the schools they work in were found to have an impact on professional burnout. However, their level of education and the category they worked in did not have any effect on the professional burnout level. Focus group interviews revealed that both groups agreed to place parents as the primary factor that triggered professional burnout. Further, they stated that they did not get depersonalized, except for some of the requests coming from teachers and students. 

Keywords: Professional Burnout, School Principals, Educational Administration, Private Schools, State Schools

Importance of Distance Education and its Rise during the Period COVID-19

Essam A. Al-Nuaimy, Ali H. A. Twaij, Hussam Ali Mahmood

pp. 29 - 34


Distance education of all kinds has become a matter of concern to most universities, education centers, and trainers, with the tremendous development that the world is witnessing today, especially in the field of information technology and the expansion of educational technology horizons, by making use of every new method that will accelerate the process of human learning and its development, The most prominent of which is what is known as distance education, and recent years have witnessed an increasing interest in the provision of education and development through the Internet. There are many electronic universities, educational institutions and centers that provide this type of education, in addition to integrated programs and scientific certificates obtained by those who complete the prescribed curriculum and several companies have also adopted it to train human staff to hone skills or update information in the field of work. In this paper, the researcher aims to discuss the role that the COVID-19 pandemic played in bringing the distance education project out of drawers into practical application in many of our schools and universities, as schools and university colleges gave virtual lectures and enabled students to follow the lectures at their homes via computers. Without this pandemic situation, our schools and universities would not have practiced distance education. The researchers also concluded that distance education has the following characteristics: flexibility, ability, impact and effectiveness, interaction, and equality.

Keywords: distance education, electronic universities, characteristics of distance education, covid-19 pandemic, advantages of e-learning

21st Century Teaching Strategies and Students Preferences

Rael Christopher O. Plaza

pp. 35 - 42


The integration of technology in education has significant impact in the teaching-learning process. This study determined the student’s learning in Social Studies subject using technology-based instructional tools such as PowerPoint Presentation and Computer Aided Instructional Material (CAIM). Three (3) classes from different secondary schools were the subjects of this study. Each class/group was taught separately, first by using PowerPoint Presentation and then CAIM. A pre-tests-post-tests experimental design was utilized in finding the results of the study. It revealed that there was an increase in the mean scores of the students in the two teaching strategies. Analyses showed that PowerPoint Presentation has higher students learning outcome than CAIM. Although, CAIM is the majority preference of the students but they perform better in the PowerPoint Presentation. The study concluded that there is a positive students’ learning outcome through the use of PowerPoint Presentation and CAIM; however these strategies should undergo systematic process for planning, designing and formative evaluation to assure excellent impact in teaching-learning process particularly in Social Studies subject.

Keywords: Computer-Aided Instructional Material, Powerpoint Presentation, Computer Technology