International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-9501

Original article | International Journal of Educational Researchers 2015, Vol. 6(3) 50-62

Safety and Risk: Benefits of Outdoor Play For Child Education

Hicran Malıyok

pp. 50 - 62   |  Manu. Number: ijers.2015.013

Published online: December 01, 2015  |   Number of Views: 979  |  Number of Download: 1597


A consideration of the theoretical frameworks of outdoor play between different scholars who emphasised different approaches and points of emphasis to outdoor play reveals a common pattern of consensus as regards the benefits of outdoor play to childhood education, health and development. From Froebel to Smilansky, the variation in points of emphasis between the different theorists does not seem to deter or inhibit the fundamental message of the profound role of outdoor play in childhood education and development. Although play is generally seen in its beneficial values, an added dimension is also given to the ‘green’ aspects of play which finds a suiting echo in outdoor play. The context of the risk involved in outdoor play in the UK therefore leads us into a consideration of safety and risk within the context of outdoor play in the UK. 

Keywords: risk, safety, outdoor play, child education

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Maliyok, H. (2015). Safety and Risk: Benefits of Outdoor Play For Child Education. International Journal of Educational Researchers, 6(3), 50-62.

Maliyok, H. (2015). Safety and Risk: Benefits of Outdoor Play For Child Education. International Journal of Educational Researchers, 6(3), pp. 50-62.

Chicago 16th edition
Maliyok, Hicran (2015). " Safety and Risk: Benefits of Outdoor Play For Child Education". International Journal of Educational Researchers 6 (3):50-62.

  1. Ball, D. (2007) ‘Risk and the Demise of Children’s Play’ in Thom B. et al. (eds), (2007) Growing Up with Risk, Bristol, Polity Press, 57-76 [Google Scholar]
  2. Ball, D., Gill, T.& Spiegal, B. (2008) Managing Risk in Play Provision: Implementation Guide. London: Department for Children, School and Families. [Google Scholar]
  3. Boyer, T. W. (2006). The Development of Risk-taking: A multi-perspective review. Developmental Review, 26, 291-345. [Google Scholar]
  4. British Toys and Hobbies Association (BTHA) (2011) A World Without Play: A Literature Review, London, Play England [Google Scholar]
  5. Burdette, H.L. & Whitaker R.C. (2005) ‘A National Study of Neighbourhood Safety, Outdoor Play, Television Viewing and Obesity in Preschool Children’ 116(3) Pediatrics 657¬662 [Google Scholar]
  6. Burnett, A. (1962) ‘The Montessori Education Today and Yesterday’ 63(2) The Elementary School Journal 71-77 [Google Scholar]
  7. Casey, T. (2003) Grounds for Learning, Sportsscotland and Play Scotland: School Grounds [Google Scholar]
  8. Literature Review, Phase One of the Scottish Schools Ground Research Project [Google Scholar]
  9. Faryadi, Q. (2007) The Montessori Paradigm of Learning: So What? Malaysia, UiTM [Google Scholar]
  10. Fleurot, M. (ed) (2008) Growing Up Outdoors, Sheffield, Countryside Recreation Network [Google Scholar]
  11. Freeman, C. (1995) Planning and Play: Creating greener environments. In Children's Environments.12(3),164-176 [Google Scholar]
  12. Gill, T. (2007) Growing Up in a Risk Averse Society, London, Calouste Gulbankian Foundation [Google Scholar]
  13. Gleave, J. (2008) Risk and Play: A Literature Review, Give us a Go [Google Scholar]
  14. Gutteridge, S. (2008) ‘Making Good Places for Playing’ 27 Play Wales [Google Scholar]
  15. Hughes, B. (2003) Play Deprivation, Play Wales briefing paper [Google Scholar]
  16. Kaarby, K. M. E. (2004). Children Playing in Nature. Paper presented at the 1st CECDE International conference: Questions of Quality, Dublin Castle, Ireland, 23rd-25 September 2004. [Google Scholar]
  17. Little, H. (2009) Finding the Balance: Early Childhood Practitioner’s View on Risk, Challenge and Safety in Outdoor Play Settings [online] available at viewed 09 February 2012 [Google Scholar]
  18. Ludvigsen, A., Creegan, C. and Mills, H. (2005) Lets Play Together: Play and inclusion evaluation of better play round three, Barnardo’s [Google Scholar]
  19. Madge, N. & Barker, J. (2007). Risk & Childhood. London: The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce [Google Scholar]
  20. Manwaring, B. & Taylor, C. (2006) The Benefits of Play andPlaywork, London, CYWU [Google Scholar]
  21. Maudsley, M. & Lester, S. (2007) Play, Naturally: A Review of Children’s Natural Play, London, National Children’s Bureau [Google Scholar]
  22. Morrongiello, B.A. (2005) ‘Caregiver Supervision and Child-Injury Risk: I. Issues in Defining and Measuring Supervision; II. Findings and Directions for Future Research’ 30(7) Journal of Pediatric Psychology 536-552 [Google Scholar]
  23. Munoz, S. (2009) Children in Outdoors: A Literature Review, Scotland, Sustainable Development Research Centre [Google Scholar]
  24. Norfolk County Council (2009) ‘Early Years Outdoor Learning: A Toolkit for Developing Early Years Outdoor Provision ’. [online]. Available at viewed 3 February 2012-03-08 [Google Scholar]
  25. Osmond, J. & Morris, N. (2009) What are We Doing to Our Kids? Institute of Welsh Affairs [Google Scholar]
  26. Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA) 2007 Rewiew 06:07, Birmingham. [Google Scholar]
  27. Sandseter, E.B.H. (2007) ‘Categorising Risky Play- How can we Identify Risk-Taking in Children’s Play?’ 15(2) European Early ChildhoodEducation Research Journal 237¬252 [Google Scholar]
  28. Thom, B. et al., (eds) (2007) Growing Up with Risk, Bristol, Polity Press [Google Scholar]
  29. Thomas, G. & Thompson, J. (2004) A Child’s Place: why environment matters to children, (London: Green Alliance\Demos) [Google Scholar]
  30. Thompson, J. & Philo, C. (2004) Playful Spaces? A social geography of children's play in livingston.2 (1) Scotland. In Children's Geographies, 111-130 [Google Scholar]
  31. UNCRC (1989) United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child [Google Scholar]
  32. UNICEF (2007) ‘Child Poverty in Perspective: An Overview of Child Wellbeing in Rich Countries’ Innocenti Report Card 7, (eds) Adamson, P. 52, Florence, Innocenti Research Centre [Google Scholar]
  33. Valentine, G. (1996) Children should be seen and not heard. In Urban Geography, 17 (3), 205-220 [Google Scholar]
  34. Valentine, G. & McKendrick, J. (1997) ‘Children’s Outdoor Play: Exploring Parental Concern about Children’s Safety and the Changing Nature of Childhood’ 28(2) Geoforum 219-235 [Google Scholar]
  35. Verenikina, I. et al., (2003)’Children’s Play: Computer Games, Theories of Play and Children’s Development’ Young Children and Learning Technologies UWS Parramatta, Australian Computer Society [Google Scholar]
  36. Waters, J. & Begley, S. (2007) ‘Supporting the Development of Risk-Taking Behaviours in the Early Years: An Exploratory Study’ 35(4) Education3-13 365-377. [Google Scholar]