International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-9501

Original article | International Journal of Educational Researchers 2023, Vol. 14(4) 25-36

The Effectiveness of Self-assessment in Promoting Growth Mindset in EFL Students

Amenah Almasraf

pp. 25 - 36   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2308-25-0010.R1

Published online: December 31, 2023  |   Number of Views: 14  |  Number of Download: 57


While research on mindsets theory deals with internal psychological processes, self-assessment research focuses on external teaching strategies. This research study aimed to examine the impact of self-assessment strategies in developing a positive mindset in EFL classrooms. Language students hold different beliefs regarding language learning, but one crucial belief that contributes to their success is whether their language aptitude is fixed or malleable. Twenty-five students from the Faculty of Education, University of Abu-Isa, Zawiya participated in this study. At the beginning of the study, participants were given Mindsets Survey to examine if they have growth, or fixed mindsets based on their scores on the survey. After the pre-survey, participants exercised selfassessment rubrics and checklists for 3 weeks in their writing class and the same survey was given to determine if any changes have occurred in the participants' academic mindsets. The results showed that the regular use of self-assessment rubrics and checklists during writing classes helped students with fixed mindset to develop a growth mindset. These findings imply that most students perceive self-assessment as a useful strategy since they self-control their learning process which is in line with the growth mindset theory. 

Keywords: mindset theory, language mindsets, self-assessment, writing achievement

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Almasraf, A. (2023). The Effectiveness of Self-assessment in Promoting Growth Mindset in EFL Students . International Journal of Educational Researchers, 14(4), 25-36. doi: 10.29329/ijer.2023.604.3

Almasraf, A. (2023). The Effectiveness of Self-assessment in Promoting Growth Mindset in EFL Students . International Journal of Educational Researchers, 14(4), pp. 25-36.

Chicago 16th edition
Almasraf, Amenah (2023). "The Effectiveness of Self-assessment in Promoting Growth Mindset in EFL Students ". International Journal of Educational Researchers 14 (4):25-36. doi:10.29329/ijer.2023.604.3.

  1. Aronson, J., Fried, C. B., & Good, C. (2002). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38(2), 113–125. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Bernecker, K., & Job, V. (2019). Mindset theory. Social Psychology in Action, 179–191. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  3. Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78(1), 246–263. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  4. Burnette, J. L., O’Boyle, E. H., VanEpps, E. M., Pollack, J. M., & Finkel, E. J. (2013). Mind-sets matter: A meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation. Psychological Bulletin, 139(3), 655–701. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  5. Chen, J., & Pajares, F. (2010). Implicit theories of ability of Grade 6 science students: Relation to epistemological beliefs and academic motivation and achievement in science. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(1), 75–87. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. De Castella, K., & Byrne, D. (2015). My intelligence may be more malleable than yours: The revised implicit theories of intelligence (self-theory) scale is a better predictor of achievement, motivation, and student disengagement. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 30(3), 245–267. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  7. Dweck, C. (2000). Self-theories: their role in motivation, personality, and development (Essays in Social Psychology) (1st ed.). Psychology Press. [Google Scholar]
  8. Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. Random House. [Google Scholar]
  9. Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256–273. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  10. Dweck, C. S., & Molden, D. C. (2017). Their impact on competence motivation and acquisition. Handbook of competence and motivation: Theory and application, 135. [Google Scholar]
  11. Dweck, C. S., & Yeager, D. S. (2019). Mindsets: A view from two eras. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 14(3), 481–496. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  12. Dyer, K. (2016, November). Student Self-Assessment and Self-Regulation – A Cornerstone of Successful Formative Assessment. Nwea.[1]assessment/ [Google Scholar]
  13. Elgadal, H. A. (2017). The effect of self-assessment on inexperienced EFL students’ writing during revision. [Google Scholar]
  14. Farrington, C. A., Roderick, M., Allensworth, E., Nagaoka, J., Keyes, T. S., Johnson, D. W., & Beechum, N. O. (2012). Teaching adolescents to become learners the role of noncognitive factors in shaping school performance: A critical literature review. Consortium on Chicago School Research. 1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. [Google Scholar]
  15. Grant, H., & Dweck, C. S. (2003). Clarifying achievement goals and their impact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 541–553. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Gross, J. (2019). Self-assessment and the growth mindset of middle school students. Dordt Digital Collections. [Google Scholar]
  17. Haimovitz, K., & Dweck, C. S. (2017). The Origins of Children’s Growth and Fixed Mindsets: New research and a new proposal. Child Development, 88(6), 1849–1859. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  18. Hammann, L. (2005). Self-regulation in academic writing tasks. International journal of teaching and learning in higher education, 17(1), 15-26. [Google Scholar]
  19. Harris, M. (1997). Self-assessment of language learning in formal settings. ELT Journal, 51(1), 12–20. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  20. Henderson, V., & Dweck, C. S. (1990). Motivation and achievement. In S. Feldman & G. Elliott (Eds.), At the threshold: Adolescent development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [Google Scholar]
  21. Hong, Y., Chiu, C., Dweck, C. S., Lin, D. M., & Wan, W. W. (1999). Implicit theories, attributions, and coping: A meaning system approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(3), 588–599. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. Horwitz, E. K. (1999). Cultural and situational influences on foreign language learners’ beliefs about language learning: a review of BALLI studies. System, 27(4), 557–576. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  23. Inan-Karagul, B., & Yuksel, D. (2018). Self-Assessment in listening. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, 1–7. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  24. Javaherbakhsh, M. R. (2010). The impact of self-Assessment on Iranian EFL learners’ writing skill. English Language Teaching, 3(2). [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Limeri, L. B., Carter, N. T., Choe, J., Harper, H. G., Martin, H. R., Benton, A., & Dolan, E. L. (2020). Growing a growth mindset: characterizing how and why undergraduate students’ mindsets change. International Journal of STEM Education, 7(1). [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  26. Limpo, T., & Alves, R. A. (2014). Implicit theories of writing and their impact on students’ response to a SRSD intervention. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(4), 571–590. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  27. Lou, N. M., & Noels, K. A. (2017). Measuring language mindsets and modeling their relations with goal orientations and emotional and behavioral responses in failure situations. The Modern Language Journal, 101(1), 214–243. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  28. Lou, N. M., & Noels, K. A. (2019). Promoting growth in foreign and second language education: A research agenda for mindsets in language learning and teaching. System, 86, 102126. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  29. Mercer, S., & Ryan, S. (2009). A mindset for EFL: Learners’ beliefs about the role of natural talent. ELT Journal, 64(4), 436–444. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  30. Noels, K. A., & Lou, N. M. (2015). Mindsets, goal orientations and language learning: What we know and what we can do. Contact, 41(2), 41-52. [Google Scholar]
  31. Nussbaum, A. D., & Dweck, C. S. (2008). Defensiveness versus Remediation: Self-Theories and Modes of Self-Esteem Maintenance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(5), 599–612. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  32. Oscarson, A.D. (2009). Self-Assessment of Writing in Learning English as a Foreign Language. A Study at the Upper Secondary School Level. [Google Scholar]
  33. Pepi, A., Alesi, M., Pecoraro, D., & Faria, L. (2015). Incremental-Entity Personal conceptions of intelligence and Individualism-Collectivism in Italian students. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. Qasem, F. (2020). The Effective role of Learners’ Self-Assessment Tasks in enhancing learning English as a second language. Arab World English Journal, 11(3), 502–514. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  35. Robins, R. W., & Pals, J. L. (2002). Implicit Self-Theories in the academic domain: implications for goal orientation, attributions, affect, and Self-Esteem change. Self and Identity, 1(4), 313–336. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  36. Robinson, C. (2017). Growth mindset in the classroom. Science Scope, 41(2), 18. [Google Scholar]
  37. Schunk, D. H. (1996). Self-Evaluation and Self-Regulated Learning. [Google Scholar]
  38. Siegesmund, A. (2017). Using self-assessment to develop metacognition and self-regulated learners. Fems Microbiology Letters, 364(11). [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  39. Snipes, J., & Tran, L. (2017). Growth mindset, performance avoidance, and academic behaviors in Clark County School District.Rel 2017-226. [Google Scholar]
  40. Sun, K. L. (2015). There's no limit: Mathematics teaching for a growth mindset. Stanford University. [Google Scholar]
  41. Topping, K. J. (2003). Self and Peer Assessment in School and University: Reliability, Validity and Utility. Kluwer Academic Publishers eBooks, 55–87. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  42. Waller, L., & Papi, M. (2017). Motivation and feedback: How implicit theories of intelligence predict L2 writers’ motivation and feedback orientation. Journal of Second Language Writing, 35, 54–65. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  43. Yeager, D. S., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindsets that promote resilience: When students believe that personal characteristics can be developed. Educational Psychologist, 47(4), 302–314. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  44. Yilmaz, E. (2022). Development of mindset theory scale (growth and fixed mindset): A validity and reliability study (Turkish version). Research on Education and Psychology. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  45. Zhang, X. S., & Zhang, L. J. (2022). Sustaining learners’ writing development: Effects of using self-Assessment on their foreign language writing performance and rating accuracy. Sustainability, 14(22), 14686. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  46. Zimmerman, B. J., & Moylan, A. R. (2009). Self-Regulation: When Metacognition and Motivation Intersect. In D. J. Hacker, J. [Google Scholar]
  47. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Handbook of Metacognition in Education (pp. 299-315). Routledge. [Google Scholar]