International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-9501

Original article | International Journal of Educational Researchers 2023, Vol. 14(3) 89-103

An Assessment of Principals' Cultural Intelligence, Leadership Efficacy, and Preparedness

Loietta N Holmes & Warren Hope

pp. 89 - 103   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2208-30-0004.R1

Published online: September 30, 2023  |   Number of Views: 83  |  Number of Download: 226


Today’s principals must consider equity, diversity, and inclusion as they are elements that foster safe schools and improve students’ academic achievement. Principal preparation programs have been slow to respond to the realities of increased racial, ethnic, and culturally diverse schools nationwide. Research reveals that a cultural gap exists in schools throughout the United States and most administrators and teachers lack experience and training in leading and teaching students of color. To effectively address the learning needs of all students, school leaders must understand the histories and experiences of culturally, ethnically, linguistically, and racially diverse students. This research aimed to determine if there is a relationship among principals’ cultural intelligence, leadership efficacy, and preparedness to implement culturally responsive school leadership. Twenty-four secondary school leaders were selected to participate in this study. Two instruments, the Expanded Cultural Intelligence Scale and the Leader Efficacy Questionnaire and interviews were utilized for data collection. Four hypotheses, null and alternative were tested, and one research question was formulated for principals’ responses. Data analysis revealed no significant relationship among cultural intelligence, leadership efficacy, and preparedness of the participants. However, there was a meaningful relationship among the four constructs of Cultural Intelligence.

Keywords: cultural intelligence, leader efficacy, culturally responsive school leadership, diversity

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Holmes, L.N. & Hope, W. (2023). An Assessment of Principals' Cultural Intelligence, Leadership Efficacy, and Preparedness . International Journal of Educational Researchers, 14(3), 89-103. doi: 10.29329/ijer.2023.595.6

Holmes, L. and Hope, W. (2023). An Assessment of Principals' Cultural Intelligence, Leadership Efficacy, and Preparedness . International Journal of Educational Researchers, 14(3), pp. 89-103.

Chicago 16th edition
Holmes, Loietta N and Warren Hope (2023). "An Assessment of Principals' Cultural Intelligence, Leadership Efficacy, and Preparedness ". International Journal of Educational Researchers 14 (3):89-103. doi:10.29329/ijer.2023.595.6.

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