International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-9501

Original article | International Journal of Educational Researchers 2019, Vol. 10(4) 48-64

Investigation of Protective Factors and Parents' Acception/Rejection Perceptions in Turkish Families

Hatıce Uysal Bayrak

pp. 48 - 64   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1909-17-0004

Published online: December 31, 2019  |   Number of Views: 108  |  Number of Download: 665


The aim of the current study is to investigate the relations between parents’ parental acception/rejection perception and the protective factors of the families in terms of various variables. Total sample of 204 parents with children aged 3-8 years who lives in the internal region of Turkey, were conducted to determine being relationships within and beyond the family. Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire–Mother Form was used in order to determine parental acception/rejection; The Inventory of Family Protective Factors was intended to evaluate the protective factors that contribute to family resilience; Parent As A Teacher Inventory was used to assess parents knowledge levels about child development and education. The current study provides evidence that the Family Protective Factors, Parental Acceptance/Rejection are determinative factors within the families in terms of various variables in Turkish culture.

Keywords: Parent-child relationship, Parents as a teacher, Family protective factors, Turkish families structure

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Bayrak, H.U. (2019). Investigation of Protective Factors and Parents' Acception/Rejection Perceptions in Turkish Families . International Journal of Educational Researchers, 10(4), 48-64.

Bayrak, H. (2019). Investigation of Protective Factors and Parents' Acception/Rejection Perceptions in Turkish Families . International Journal of Educational Researchers, 10(4), pp. 48-64.

Chicago 16th edition
Bayrak, Hatice Uysal (2019). "Investigation of Protective Factors and Parents' Acception/Rejection Perceptions in Turkish Families ". International Journal of Educational Researchers 10 (4):48-64.

  1. Aktaş Özkafacı, A. (2012). Annenin Çocuk Yetiştirme Tutumu İle Çocuğun Sosyal Beceri Düzeyi Arasindaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. İstanbul Arel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul [Google Scholar]
  2. Allen, R. I. & Petr, C. G. (1996). Toward developing standards and measurements for family-centered practice in family support programs. I. G. H. S. Singer, A. P. Turnbull, H. R. Turnbull, III, L. K. Irvin & L. E. Powers, (Ed.), Family, community, and disability: Redefining family support. Innovations in public-private partnerships (57-85). Baltimore: Brookes. [Google Scholar]
  3. Anjel, M., & Erkman, F. (1993). The transliteral equivalance, reliability and validity studies of the parental acceptance-rejection questionnaire mother form: A total for assessing child abuse. Master Thesis, Boğaziçi University, İstanbul. [Google Scholar]
  4. Arthur, M. J., Hawkins, J. D., Pollard, J., Catalano, R. F. & Baglioni Jr., A. J. (2002).  Measuring risk and protective factors for substance use, delinquency, and other adolescent problem behaviors: The communities that care youth survey. Evaluation Review, 26, 575-601. [Google Scholar]
  5. Benard, B. & Marshall, K. (2001). Protective factors in individuals, families, and schools: National longitudinal study on adolescent health findings. National Resilience Resource Center University of Minnesota. Retrieved from dbh/prevention/programs/resiliency/docs/Resilience_Research_for_Prevention_Programs.pdf.  [Google Scholar]
  6. Booth, C. L. (1994). Predicting social adjustment in middle childhood: the role of preschool attachment security and maternal style. Social Development, 3(3), 189–204. [Google Scholar]
  7. Bowes, L., Maughan, B., Ball, H., Shakoor, S., Ouellet-Morin, I., Caspi, A. & Arseneault, L. (2013). Chronic bullying victimization across school transitions: The role of genetic and environmental influences. Development and Psychopathology, 25(02), 333–346. [Google Scholar]
  8. Burk, L. R., Park, J. H., Armstrong, J. M., Klein, M. H., Goldsmith, H. H., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Essex, M. J. (2008). Identification of early child and family risk factors for aggressive victim status in first grade. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(4), 513–526.  [Google Scholar]
  9. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396. [Google Scholar]
  10. Danışman, I. G. & Köksal, S. (2011). Ailedeki Koruyucu Etkenler Ölçeği Türkçe Formunun Geçerlik ve Güvenirliği. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 14(28), 39-46. [Google Scholar]
  11. De Jong, P., Kelly, S., Berg, I. K. & Gonzales, L. (2002). Building strengths-based tools for child protection practice: A case of “parallel process”. In D. Saleeby, (Ed.), The strengths perspective in social work practice (3. edition) (106-123). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  12. Fowler, P. C. (1980). Family environment and early behavioral development: a structural analysis of dependencies. Psychological Reports, 47, 611-617. [Google Scholar]
  13. Gardner, D. L., Huber, C. H., Steiner, R., Vazquez, L. A. & Savage, T. A. (2008). The development and validation of the Inventory for Family Protective Factors: A Brief assessment for family counseling. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 16(2), 107-117. [Google Scholar]
  14. Gleason, E. T. (2007). A strengths-based approach to the social developmental study. Children & Schools, 29(1), 51-59. [Google Scholar]
  15. Kerimoğlu, G. (2012). Serebral Palsili Çocuğu Olan Annelerin Algıladıkları Sosyal Desteğin Anne Çocuk İlişkileri Üzerine Etkisinin İncelenmesi. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  16. Kubin Mete, B. (2015). Çocuk İstismarı: Stres, Aile İşlevselliği, Sosyal Yalıtım, Kabul/Red. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  17. Lereya, S. T., Samara, M., & Wolke, D. (2013). Parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim: A meta-analysis study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 1091–1108. [Google Scholar]
  18. Matthews, D. W. (2000). Family resiliency. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved from depts/fcs/pdfs/fcs-508.pdf.  [Google Scholar]
  19. McCubbin, M. A. & McCubbin, H. I.  (1993). Family coping with health crises: The Resiliency Model of Family Stress and Adaptation. C. Danielson, B. Hamel-Bissel ve P. Winstead-Fry, (Ed.), Families, health, and illness. New York: Mosby. [Google Scholar]
  20. McCoy, J., (1995). Family resiliency: Building strengths to meet life’s challenges. Iowa State University Extension and the National Network for Family Resiliency. Retrieved from [Google Scholar]
  21. Milner, J. (1986). The Child Abuse Potential Inventory Manual. IL: Psytec Inc. [Google Scholar]
  22. Özbey, S. (2010). Okul öncesi çocuklarda uyum ve davranış problemleriyle başa çıkmada ailenin rolü. Aile ve Toplum, 6(22), 9-18. [Google Scholar]
  23. Özel, E. (2014). 5-7 Yaş Çocuğa Sahip Ebeveynlere Verilen Anne Baba Eğitimlerinin Aile Çocuk Ilişkisine Etkisi (Malatya Ili Örneği). Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Malatya. [Google Scholar]
  24. Rohner, R. P. (1980). Worldwide tests of parental acceptance-rejection theory: An overview cross-cultural research. Behavior Science Research, 15, 1-21. [Google Scholar]
  25. Rohner, R. P., Saavedra, J. M., & Granum, E. O. (1978). Development and validation of the parental acceptance-rejection questionnaire. Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 8, 17-48. [Google Scholar]
  26. Saleeby, D. (2006). The strengths perspective in social work practice (4. edition). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. [Google Scholar]
  27. Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S. & Bates, J. E. (1997). The early socialization of aggressive victims of bullying. Child Development, 68(4), 665–675. [Google Scholar]
  28. Shin, Y., & Kim, H. Y. (2008). Peer victimization in Korean preschool children: The effects of child characteristics, parenting behaviours and teacher-child relationships. School Psychology International, 29, 590–605.  [Google Scholar]
  29. Spooner, C., Hall, W. & Lynskey, M. (2001). Structural determinants of youth drug use: The scope for youth health development. Australian National Council on Drugs, ACT. Retrieved from information/Stuctur al_Determinants_of_Drug_Use.pdf. [Google Scholar]
  30. Strom, R. D. (1984). Parent As A Teacher Inventory Manual. Scholastic Testing Service, Bensenville, IL. [Google Scholar]
  31. Tedeschi, R. G. & Kilmer, R. P. (2005). Assessing strengths, resilience, and growth to guide clinical interventions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(3), 230-237. [Google Scholar]
  32. WHO. (2002). The world health report: Reducing risks, promoting heathy life. France: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  33. Yılmaz Bolat, E. (2011). Anne Baba Eğitiminin Beş–Altı Yaş Çocuğa Sahip Anne Babaların Çocuk Yetiştirme Tutum Ve Davranışlarına Etkisinin İncelenmesi. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  34. Yılmaz Bolat, E., Gürsoy, F., & Strom, R. (2016). Öğretmen Olarak Anne Baba Envanteri: Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(3), 961-970. [Google Scholar]
  35. Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G. & Farley, G. K. (1988). The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 30-41. [Google Scholar]